What this 75-yr-old's Story tells us About Discovery in India

Not only does it require a different kind of people to go down the research path, but even requires a different sensibility to appreciate, and evaluate scientific research

Seema Singh
Published: 29, Jan 2013

Until Dec 31,2013, I was a Senior Editor at Forbes India and I usually wrote about science and technology on this blog. I believe while we may have settled into consuming the nicely packaged final products of science - technology being a hand maiden of science - we are distancing ourselves from all the effort that goes into it. This blog was an attempt to bring occasional peek into those efforts and ideas. I've been a journalist for 17 years and have written for The Asian Age, The Times of India, Mint, Red Herring, IEEE-Spectrum, Cell, New Scientist and others. I'm now available at seema@seemasingh.in You will find my future articles on www.seemasingh.in

Karl Popper, a philosopher and professor from London School of Economics once likened scientific research to a dark man, dressed in dark, who enters a dark room in search of a dark hat that may not be there. One of the greatest philosophers of science of the 20th Century, Popper, who died in 1994, captured the soul of this enterprise in this analogy. Not only does it require a different kind of people to go down this path, but even requires a different sensibility to appreciate, and evaluate, scientific research.

So last week when I came across two completely different stories, of two men above 70 years of age in pursuit of discovery, I was reminded of Popper and the fact that somehow in India we have a patchy record of appreciating/encouraging curiosity-driven research.

Dr MA Padmanabha Rao's story is depressingly inspiring. In response to my old blog post, Does Indian Science Suck, Rao, former deputy director of the Defence Laboratory in Jodhpur, wrote a moving account of his own career, the latter half of which has been spent in research. I reproduce that comment below but before that a little background on him.

After teaching nuclear medicine at AIIMS in Delhi, he joined the Defense Lab in Jodhpur in 1983. He did experimental work in nuclear physics and detected new phenomenon in light emission from X-ray sources, science that lies at the intersection of nuclear and X-ray physics and atomic spectroscopy. But before he could publish his work, he attained his retirement age. Rao was neither given an extension nor due recognition in promotion; in fact, he was denied promotion.

Atomic phenomenon

He continued interpreting the data and kept sending his work – remember, as a freelance scientist which is not a good position to be in, in the rarefied world of scientific publication -- to various journals. Many rejections came; finally he published his work in the Brazilian Journal of Physics. He has termed his observation of the new light phenomenon as Bharat Radiation, but nobody in “Bharat’ seems to care for it! Care enough to repeat those experiments and validate or refute his claim. He says when he met late nuclear scientist Raja Ramanna in Bangalore, the latter first showed disbelief, and then disinterest. “I am tired and retired”, is all that Ramanna said.

“He has experimentally observed radiation for the first time. Why this work was not published in more reputed journals, I don’t have an answer to that,” says DC Dubey, former professor of physics at IIT Delhi who has known Rao for a long time. Prof Dubey, who is now at ITM University in Gurgaon, says he trusts Rao’s work and the claim is original, “how important it is remains to be seen.”

“In this country if you have a godfather, things move faster and you even achieve things which you don’t deserve. But Rao neither has a godfather, not any association,” says Prof Dubey.

Can any Indian institution give an honorary title of National Professor or Emeritus Scientist to Rao so that when he sends his research paper to journals for publication, he is treated with more respect? He says he has some more work in solar physics to be published. We only hope he has some institutional backing this time.

Here’s Rao’s story in his own words:

 How scientific discoveries are made? I saw a long debate keeping in view why India could not make any original research or scientific breakthroughs. It is not true that India failed to do any breakthroughs or discoveries in the past. In understanding a surprise finding noticed in 1988, I worked day and night for 9 yrs from 1988 until my retirement in 1997 at the Defence Laboratory (DRDO), Jodhpur, Rajasthan. I officially met Dr.A.P.J. Abdul Kalam, the then Scientific Advisor to Minister of Defence, in 1992 in his office and appraised my discovery on detection of light emission from radioisotopes. Moreover, the Director of the Laboratory has officially sent my official Technical Report released in April 1997 on my discovery of new 'atomic phenomenon' in radioisotopes and XRF sources to Head of DRDO, Dr. Kalam. Instead of giving an award or a normal promotion, I was not even allowed to attend interview for my last promotion to sc F post in summer 1997, because of downgrading my confidential reports by my seniors for reasons unknown to me. Some annual and half yearly reports sent from the Laboratory to Dr. Kalam mentioned my discoveries, yet I was victimized.

 http://www.nature.com/news/2011/111107/full/news.2011.632.html . There is none to question Dr.Kalam, and DRDO why it happened to the discoverer of a new atomic phenomenon and none can undo the immense harm done. After retirement, I continued my fundamental physics research at my residence in New Delhi for another 13 yrs until publication of my research paper in Braz J. Phy, Mar, 2010, http://www.sbfisica.org.br/bjp/files/v40_38.pdf which claims six fundamental physics discoveries including the discovery of Bharat Radiation. Since I am an Indian and done the research in India, so the research is hardly known to most Indians for various reasons. Some top scientists pretend that they are not aware of the recent physics discoveries done in India, though most popular in Internet.

 On record, I am the current discoverer in India but I do not find any senior scientist from DRDO or any other organization coming forward to recommend for any award, research grant, or Emeritus Scientist. Most of my pension benefits (nearly 2 lakh Rupees ) were spent on funding my own research, attending international conferences in USA, Bulgaria and Russia to check up the opinion of foreign scientists whether these are really discoveries. Since Russian Conference in 2008, I did further research on discovery of Sun’s Bharat Radiation emission and Sunlight phenomenon. Many of my juniors were fortunate enough to supersede me at Jodhpur, while I was busy with my research breakthroughs. By doing routine research generally scientists get every promotion and many facilities in professional life. For being an Indian discoverer I lost everything, promotion, the pension benefits and minimum pleasures of life while working several hours a day. When I was seriously working on surprise finding during 1988 to 1997 or afterwards, I was not sure whether my paper will ever be published. It was rejected over 13 times since the journals generally hesitate to publish breakthroughs and more from countries like India. After publication, none from India or abroad cared to verify the published findings.

 Discoveries take long years for recognition. Sometimes, if discoveries are done on Indian soil, it is possible that they never get recognized. But I never felt that I wasted my precious life. Doing a discovery is a rarest of rare event in science, and could be done only by a very few in the world. I am happy since I was able to do the research despite very unfavorable conditions. Although my juniors superseded me, it did not dampen my spirits to do research up to late in night for months and years at Jodhpur. Except in 1997, media did not show any interest in releasing the news in Indian Dailies or TV, even when published the discoveries in a peer reviewed journal. Many top Indian scientists of repute whom I met simply discouraged me and some others tried to suppress my work from publication. So I stopped meeting top people seeking any kind of help.

At 75 yrs age, I work at times 17 hrs a day. I have material to publish two more important papers on Sunlight phenomenon and ‘different wavelengths of light travelling at different velocities’ but I feel it is impossible to publish papers from home. This is how discoveries are done in India and buried with malnutrition!

M.A.Padmanabha Rao, PhD (AIIMS) http://www.scholarpedia.org/article/User:M.A.Padmanabha_Rao,_PhD_(A.I.I.M.S)

The second story is of an 80-year-old man, KS Sivaprasad, who developed a new, waste-to-energy technology but couldn't commercialize it in India as the “system” was not conducive. The plant now runs in Malaysia.

Once again,India’s loss is Malaysia’s gain!


  • Anushka Shetty 1996 Dodge Intrepid | Tollywood Actress

    [...] What this 75-yr-old’s Story tells us About Discovery in India – Karl Popper, a philosopher and professor from London School of Economics once likened scientific research to a dark man, dressed in dark, who enters a dark room in search of a dark hat that may not be there. One of the greatest philosophers of science of … [...]

    on Jun 12, 2015
  • Leela

    QUOTE - Tehelka Investigation- http://www.tehelka.com/tehelka-investigation-how.../... One such prominent tale is that of Dr MA Padmanabha Rao, which was brought to the notice of the wider world by the intrepid science and technology writer Seema Singh some time ago, and which has now become a major topic of debate in interested circles. After teaching nuclear medicine at aiims in New Delhi, Dr Rao joined the Defence Laboratory in Jodhpur in 1983, where he did experimental work in nuclear physics and detected a new phenomenon in light emission from X-ray sources. However, before he could publish his work, he attained his retirement age. As Seema recounted, “Rao was neither given an extension nor due recognition in promotion; in fact, he was denied promotion.” However, the indefatigable researcher in Dr Rao refused to give up and he continued interpreting the data and kept sending his work to various journals. Many rejections came; finally he published his work in the Brazilian Journal of Physics. Dr Rao has termed his observation of the new light phenomenon as Bharat Radiation, but nobody in Bharat seems to care for it. Some noted academics underscored how Dr Rao had experimentally observed radiation for the first time, but they have been intrigued why this work was not published in more reputed journals, and also get him official recognition. The absence of a godfather can often negate the best of research. As the question has been posed, can any Indian institution give an honorary title of National Professor or Emeritus Scientist to Dr Rao so that when he sends his research paper to journals for publication, he is treated with greater consideration? From APJ Abdul Kalam down, Dr Rao has tried to appraise his discovery on detection of light emission from radioisotopes. According to him, work goes unrewarded even when the discoveries are published in a peer-reviewed journal.

    on Feb 10, 2015
  • Leela

    Discovery of Bharat Radiation from radioisotope and XRF sources was expected to receive Nobel Prize for physics in 2008. By 2013, M.A. Padmanabha Rao has made new world record in physics by doing nine fundamental physics discoveries. Many in India and abroad are of the view Dr M.A. Padmanabha Rao should have been awarded Bharat Ratna in 2015.

    on Jan 8, 2015
  • Sheep

    Are you guys sheep? I've read M.A. Padmanabha Rao's papers, and they're basically idiotic crackpottery and pseudo-science. This fellow is a fool who loves to spam Q&A sites and forums with his pseudo-scientific garbage. Doesn't it tell you enough about him and his fake research, that his papers are published in such obscure journals? "What this 75-line article's story tells us about the sorry state of Indian media" would be a better title to this article. Seriously, copy the content minus images into your word processor and make the margins 0. It's 75 lines.

    on Dec 23, 2014
    • Leela

      RECOGNITION OF DR.RAO,S DISCOVERIES BY DEFENCE LAB', JODHPUR. You could be one of the very few persons who wish to tarnish India's image in science by undermining M.A. Padmanabha Rao's physics discoveries. On 4th August 2014, he has delivered an invited talk 'How discoveries are made' on his nine fundamental physics discoveries at Jodhpur in the Defence laboratory where he did experimental research that led to the following publication. The Director of the labratory presented a Memento to Dr Rao at the end of lecture. https://plus.google.com/u/0/+DrMAPadmanabhaRaoPhD/posts M.A.Padmanabha Rao, UV dominant optical emission newly detected from radioisotopes and XRF sources, Braz. J. Phy., 40, no 1, 38-46,2010. http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0103-97332010000100007

      on Dec 29, 2014
  • Rajveer Shekhawat

    I highly sympathize with Dr. Rao for not having got the recognition of his novel discovery of Bharat Radiation. Of course this is not new and the views expressed by him are true to a great extent in Indian Research Labs. This is a usual phenomenon in all walks of life like sports. I am only surprised as to why foreign journals did not publish his findings. Further if his discoveries were novel, I am sure some physicists should have attempted to recreate the phenomenon. Has anyone any knowledge of such validation work? I am keen to learn about his discoveries and any pointers to his work are welcome. Of course I shall try to dig it myself and learn how true are his claims. I am also a physicist but not practicing this area.

    on Oct 22, 2014
  • M.A. Padmanabha Rao, PhD (AIIMS)

    HAPPY NEW YEAR 2014 to Ms Seema Singh and FORBES India for profound encouragement accorded to science and scientists. Journalists and Jurists can save India. Ms Seema Singh, you are exceptional among journalists for taking a bold step to uplift the lone but most neglected scientific discoverer in India.

    on Dec 30, 2013
  • M.A. Padmanabha Rao, PhD (AIIMS)

    Thanking you Mr. Varun Shankar for your kind and encouraging words. arXiv.org needs endorsement from some other arXiv submitter. He should have submitted 4 papers in any of astro-ph, astro-ph.CO, astro-ph.EP, astro-ph.GA, astro-ph.HE, astro-ph.IM or astro-ph.SR earlier than three months ago and less than five years ago. My unique endorsement code is: CU9TFZ I have requested two authors already to endorse my two research papers published in solar physics, but they did not give any response. I will try further.

    on Nov 12, 2013
  • Varun Shankar

    Dr. Rao, Have you posted your work on Arxiv.org? That would get your work out to a much larger audience, even if you didn't publish it in a major journal. By putting your work up for peer-review by an even larger audience, you may be able to dodge the political issues you've unfortunately experienced. For what it's worth, if it's on the Arxiv, I can try and ask some physicists in my extended circles to take a look in their spare time. It's a baby step. Cheers.

    on Oct 5, 2013
  • M.A. Padmanabha Rao, PhD (AIIMS)

    MY 9th SCIENTIFIC DISCOVERY JUST PUBLISHED: IOSR Journal of Applied Physics (IOSR-JAP) e-ISSN: 2278-4861.Volume 4, Issue 4 (Sep. - Oct. 2013), PP 08-14 http://www.iosrjournals.org/iosr-jap/papers/Vol4-issue4/B0440814.pdf?id=3522 Discovery of superluminal velocities of X-rays and Bharat Radiation challenging the validity of Einstein’s formula E= mc2 M. A. Padmanabha Rao, PhD (AIIMS), Former Professor of Medical Physics, 114 Charak Sadan, Vikas Puri, New Delhi 110018, India

    on Aug 30, 2013
  • M.A. Padmanabha Rao, PhD (AIIMS)

    BREAKING NEWS ON INDIA’S LEAP IN SOLAR PHYSICS. I am able to publish my second landmark paper in Solar Physics today: ‘Discovery of Self-Sustained 235-U Fission Causing Sunlight by Padmanabha Rao Effect’ in IOSR Journal of Applied Physics (IOSR-JAP), Volume 4, Issue 2 (Jul. - Aug. 2013), PP 06-24, http://www.iosrjournals.org/iosr-jap/papers/Vol4-issue2/B0420624.pdf . EXCERPTS OF THE PAPER: Sunlight phenomenon being one of the most complex phenomena in science evaded from previous researchers. Understanding the phenomenon needed advanced knowledge in the fields of nuclear physics, X-ray physics, and atomic spectroscopy. A surprise finding, optical emission detected from Rb XRF source in 1988 led to the discovery of a previously unknown atomic phenomenon causing Bharat radiation emission followed by optical emission from radioisotopes and XRF sources reported in 2010 [10]. The same phenomenon was found causing the Sunlight. However, it took nearly 25 years of research to reach the current level of understanding the Sunlight phenomenon reported here. BREAKTHROUGHS: (1) On the basis of fusion, many solar lines could not be identified previously and what causes these lines remained puzzling. Though 11 solar lines could be identified by other researchers, they became questionable. The significant breakthrough has come when it became possible now to identify as many as 153 lines on the basis of uranium fission taking place on Sun’s core surface. Surprisingly, the fission products released in Chernobyl reactor accident in 1986 also seem to be present in solar flares. (2) Explained what are Sun’s dark spots and their cause. (3) For the first time, it is shown what constitutes Dark Matter and showed existence of Dark Matter in Sun. (4) It is explained with unprecedented detail how Bharat Radiation from fission products (radioisotopes) causes Sunlight by an atomic phenomenon known as Padmanabha Rao Effect. My research work on solar physics started around 2003. I was able to make this breakthrough research work from home though I was unable to attend a single seminar in solar physics and meet any astrophysicist. In India, my daughter in law and son fully supported my research, and in USA my son-in law and daughter did. While doing this most complicated research, I had to work for 10 to 15 hours a day at 75 years, my wife gave me helping hand.

    on Jul 3, 2013
  • M.A. Padmanabha Rao, PhD (AIIMS)

    JOURNAL OF INDIAN SCIENCE CONGRESS CITED Six Fundamental Physics Discoveries including the discovery of Bharat Radiation. P. K. Ray, Former Director, Bose Institute, Ministry of Science and Technology, Kolkata cited in his article SCIENCE, CULTURE AND DEVELOPMENT — A CONNECTED PHENOMENA, Everyman’s Science Vol. XLVII No. 4, Oct ’12 —Nov ’12, http://www.sciencecongress.nic.in/html/pdf/e-book/oct-nov-2012.pdf 1. Chandrasekhara Venkata Raman (Sir C. V. Raman), Raman got Nobel Prize for his discovery of RAMAN SPECTRA in 1930. 2. In 1896, Acharya Prafulla Chandra Ray published a paper on preparation of a new stable chemical. 3. Sir Jagadish Chandra Bose pioneered in the discovery of radio and microwave optics and is the inventor of the Crescograph.. 4. Prof. Meghnad Saha is known for his discovery of Thermal ionization, known as Saha ionization equation. 5. Prof. Satyendra Nath Bose is known for his discovery of Bose-Einstein condensate, BoseEinstein statistics, and Bose gas (Boson, God’s particle). Prof. S. N. Bose’s work on Bose-Einstein equation and fundamental concept on the existence of “Boson particles” created a stir in the World. 6. Prof. B. C. Guha was the doyen of the Indian Biochemists. 7. Dr. Bidhan Chandra Ray (former Chief Minister of West Bengal) was instrumental to help in the establishment of Bengal Immunity for the production of Sera and Vaccines indigenously. 8. Homi Jehangir Bhabha –atomic physicist (Creator of Atomic Bullets and Atomic handgun). He is the architect of the Atomic Energy Commission and Bhabha Atomic Research Centre. 9. Dr. Vikram Sarabhai is the main Architect and inspiration behind the Space Programme of India. 10. Birbal Sahni noted PaleoBotanist. 11. Prasanta Chandra Mahalanobis founder of Indian Statistical Institute, known for introducing the concept of Mahalanobis distance. 12. G. N. Ramachandran -first to propose triple helical model structure of Collagen. 13. Har Gobind Khorana famous for showing how the nucleotides of DNA control the synthesis of Proteins. He received Nobel Prize for his discovery. 14. M.A.Padmanabha Rao made Six Fundamental Physics Discoveries including the discovery of Bharat Radiation

    on Jun 9, 2013
  • M.A. Padmanabha Rao, PhD (AIIMS)

    My work in April issue of Discovery magazine INDIA’S LEAD OVER OTHER COUNTRIES IN X-RAY AND NUCLEAR PHYSICS, ATOMIC SPECTROSCOPY AND SOLAR PHYSICS. THE SUCCESS HAS COME DUE TO SPENDING MY RETIREMENT BENEFITS. http://www.discovery.org.in/PDF_Files/d_20130402.pdf In the last 100 years, Madam Curie and John Bardeen were the two scientists who could do two discoveries and were awarded Nobel Prize twice: NOBEL PRIZE for Marie and Pierre Curie http://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/physics/articles/curie/ In 1903, Marie and Pierre Curie were awarded half the Nobel Prize in Physics. The citation was, "in recognition of the extraordinary services they have rendered by their joint researches on the radiation phenomena discovered by Professor Henri Becquerel." Henri Becquerel was awarded the other half for his discovery of spontaneous radioactivity. A SECOND NOBEL PRIZE for Madam Curie. In 1911 she was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry. The citation by the Nobel Committee was, "in recognition of her services to the advancement of chemistry by the discovery of the elements radium and polonium, by the isolation of radium and the study of the nature and compounds of this remarkable element." JOHN BARDEEN The Nobel Prize in Physics 1956 William B. Shockley, John Bardeen, Walter H. Brattain The Nobel Prize in Physics 1956 was awarded jointly to William Bradford Shockley, John Bardeen and Walter Houser Brattain "for their researches on semiconductors and their discovery of the transistor effect" http://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/physics/laureates/1956/ The Nobel Prize in Physics 1972. John Bardeen, Leon N. Cooper, Robert Schrieffer The Nobel Prize in Physics 1972 was awarded jointly to John Bardeen, Leon Neil Cooper and John Robert Schrieffer "for their jointly developed theory of superconductivity, usually called the BCS-theory". http://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/physics/laureates/1972/# INDIA HAS DONE SIX FUNDAMENTAL PHYSICS DISCOVERIES THROUGH MY RESEARCH WORK I have done the experimental work related to these discoveries for 9 years at the Defence Laboratory, Jodhpur, Rajasthan in India. And for 13 years I have spent my own pension funds until the publication of the research work in March 2010, from my residence 114 Charak Sadan, Vikas Puri at New Delhi 110018. DETAILS OF THESE DISCOVERIES CAN BE VIEWED IN : Discovery Journal - An International monthly series for Science, Technology, Engineering and Arts, Volume 4 Number 10 pp1-24, April 2013 http://www.discovery.org.in/PDF_Files/d_20130402.pdf IN ADDITION MAJOR BREAKTHROUGH ALSO WAS DONE IN SOLAR PHYSICS FROM INDIA My research paper entitled ' Discovery of Sun’s Bharat Radiation emission causing Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) and UV dominant optical radiation' appeared online on 19h March 2013 http://www.iosrjournals.org/iosr-jap/papers/Vol3-issue2/H0325660.pdf After 5 years of struggle, I was able to publish my first paper on solar physics. The research work emerged from India has shown a fundamental change in our current understanding on the Sunlight phenomenon, as it is not due to fusion as has been believed by the entire world, but by Uranium fission. I have predicted Bharat radiation from radioisotopes and XRF (X-ray fluorescent) sources in Brazilian Jour of Physics in March 2010, but now its existence is shown in middle of solar spectrum. For the first time, the solar spectrum measured by various researchers since 1960s could be interpreted successfully now.

    on Apr 13, 2013
  • Dr.A.Jagadeesh

    Great post. Well written. This is the fate of original research in many cases. In India PUSH PULL(Amplifier) APPROACH WORKS IN MANY FIELDS AND SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY ARE NO EXCEPTION! Dr.A.Jagadeesh Nellore(AP),India

    on Mar 23, 2013
  • Gayatri Rajesh

    It is pretty sad and unfair that Dr. Rao's works have not been given the due review process. It is a well known fact that "talent suppression" is practiced widely in India. There is simply no way for a true scientist such as Dr. Rao to have his works properly vetted. I happened to speak to a professor from MIT what he said was baffling. He said that whenever he circulates a publication for peer-review, all the Indian professors feel compelled to write a negative review! 200 years of colonial rule completely destroyed the self-respect of its citizens. Worst part is that they are not even aware of it! I wish Dr. Rao the best of luck! His perseverance and hard work are remarkable, despite so many obstructions.

    on Mar 20, 2013
  • M.A.Padmanabha Rao, PhD (AIIMS)

    BIG BREAKTHROUGH IN SOLAR PHYSICS FROM INDIA My research paper entitled Discovery of Sun’s Bharat Radiation emission causing Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) and UV dominant optical radiation appeared online today. IOSR Journal of Applied Physics (IOSR-JAP) e-ISSN: 2278-4861. Volume 3, Issue 2 (Mar. - Apr. 2013), PP 56-60 http://www.iosrjournals.org/iosr-jap/papers/Vol3-issue2/H0325660.pdf After 5 years of struggle, I was able to publish my first paper on solar physics. The research work emerged from India has shown a fundamental change in our current understanding on the Sunlight phenomenon, as it is not due to fusion as has been believed by the entire world, but by Uranium fission. I have predicted Bharat radiation from radioisotopes and XRF (X-ray fluorescent) sources in Brazilian Jour of Physics in March 2010, but now its existence is shown in middle of solar spectrum. For the first time, the solar spectrum measured by various researchers since 1960s could be interpreted successfully now.

    on Mar 19, 2013
  • M.A.Padmanabha Rao, PhD (AIIMS)

    INDIAN DISCOVERER KEPT UNDER CAPTIVITY...... This article is intended to provide some insights to Government of India why INDIAN ACADEMIC and RESEARCH INSTITUTIONS ARE CRUMBLING despite spending huge amounts for research and development. My own experience says hard working scientists with honesty and sincerity face a hell in Indian academic and research institutions, besides not getting normal promotions. The biggest consolation for me today is that I escaped from going to jail, while doing research work at Jodhpur . On one hand, my senior colleagues in DRDO at Jodhpur did not want me to get any award for the discovery of a new atomic phenomenon taking place in radioisotopes, for the fear that I might become the next Director of the Defence Laboratory. They denied me two promotions by downgrading my ACRs. Now some people in DRDO staged a war through Krishnan Raman and Gp Capt Sandhu, as DRDO staff or retired from DRDO and resorted to mudslinging on the Physics Discoveries done by me, discrediting even the India ’s glory. Just one day before Gp Capt Sandhu launched an attack on my research work, I received an e-mail on 2 Feb 13 from Air Cmde Raghubir Singh(Retd), Pune with a copy to Sandhu Gp Capt GS........ “Dear Dr Padmanabha Rao, I read about you today & your meeting SA at that time. There is similar case of an intellectual Gp Capt GS Sandhu my course mate & we served together in the IAF & DRDO for long years. He took premature retirement & continued with his research on his own .He too had met Dr APJ Abdul Kalam”. ..... BLACK HOLES IN WHITE APRON:............. While working as Lecturer in Medical Physics in Nuclear Medicine Dept at the All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi I have been invited as Assembly Member to the World Federation of Nuclear Medicine and Biology held at Tokyo in 1974 at the age of just 37 yrs. Looking at the Memento presented to me at Tokyo, one eminent Physics Professor at Jodhpur told me that it is a rare International Honor. For my doctoral thesis, I worked independently after office hours sometimes up to 2.00 A.M for over 5 years that ultimately led to the award of PhD Degree (AIIMS) in 1975. All these academic distinctions did not help me to get a normal promotion from Lecturer to Assistant Professor for 11 years in the prestigious academic institution in the country, while some others managed to get senior posts with no experience, in the same Department. My medical colleagues did not want an honest man around in the Department in their top secret activity. When AIIMS prohibits private practice, my three Nuclear Medicine doctor colleagues leagued with two private practicing doctors and tested nearly 400 patients secretly for imaging of liver, brain and thyroid using Gamma Camera and radiopharmacuticals whether required for diagnosis or not but to have monetary benefit. These patients were subjected to radiation exposure whether required for diagnosis or not. Against the normal practice, they were given appointments on phone and in the appointment register patients names were not entered, but as 2 patients of doctor (Private practitioner’ name). Reports were handed over directly to patients, while such VIP facilities were denied for AIIMS Hospital patients. Money transaction took place from private practitioners to my medical colleagues. The news was published in magazines, with the title ‘Nuclear Racket’ in the weekly Blitz, and ultimately in Indian Express. Three enquiries were held as a pretext but only to save the guilty. File containing detailed list of patients tested illegally reached Health Minister Laskar through Home Minister Venkata Subbayya but everything was hushed up. Afterwards, two of these Nuclear Medicine doctors could secure posts as International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) experts at Geneva . I left AIIMS after 19 yrs when not promoted for 11 yrs from the post of Lecturer.......... INDIAN DISCOVERER KEPT UNDER CAPTIVITY:.............. When I joined the Defence Laboratory at Jodhpur in Rajasthan in March 1983 as Sc D (Assistant Director) through UPSC selection, two of my senior colleagues who knew me at Delhi were unhappy of my joining. As a result, no office chair and table were offered to me for 40 days. In 1984, I wrote a letter in private capacity to Prime Minister Indira Gandhi requesting to nominate me for Jawaharlal Nehru Fellowship. An officer was deputed from PMO to meet me and discuss the matter. But the then Director did not allow the officer to meet me. My seniors were afraid that I may become the next Director. What I got was punishment instead of Fellowship. My Annual Confidential Report was downgraded so that I do not get promotion for next 4 to 5 yrs. On instigation by my senior colleagues, three members of workers union were looking for an opportunity. Probably in 1992, three members of workers union saw me in an isolated building but hardly 15 meters from Director’s office. One person blocked the door without any chance for me to escape from the room. Time was 5.30 p.m, and the laboratory would be closed at any moment. When I was trying to escape from room, another person hiding behind the door hit me. My hand was fractured. The third person stood at the entrance of the building so that I cannot escape from the building. The Director office just 15 meters away did not care to relieve me. Director and Deputy Director were hearing the episode from another office. After 45 minutes my colleague with the help of Administrative officer relieved me. When all the scientists protested for the untoward incident and news appeared in local Dailies, those three were suspended on the advice of the Scientific Advisor to Minister for Defence, Dr. Arunachalam. I lodged an FIR and it became a criminal case. In 1997, I withdrew the case because one person may go to jail for 7 yrs. I happened to do the breakthrough research that led to six fundamental physics discoveries while attending criminal court on one side. I just got only one promotion when most of my colleagues got 3 promotions in 14 yrs of service. While the laboratory has been a hell to carry on my research, it was a heaven to some. Some of my colleagues were fortunate to became Grade I directors without any need of working a single hour in the experimental laboratory. One Head of the Department was fortunate enough to purchase 10 plots near aerodrome for serving as Stores in-charge. Today it is worth several Crores of Rupees. Some scientists did pioneering research how to become rich and get regular promotions without any need of doing any significant work. While many young scientists leave DRDO, to some scientists DRDO is an ATM card. This is how a serious research worker with sincerity and honesty can face torturous life in India , so the young seek foreign shores........ Please peruse my comment approved by Mr. Luis Miranda in his Blog ‘Why I have turned pessimistic about the education sector’. http://forbesindia.com/blog/economy-policy/why-i-have-turned-pessimistic-about-the-education-sector/

    on Feb 26, 2013
  • Rajeev Mohnot

    I am fortunate to know Dr Rao personally. He was my senior colleague in Defence Lab, Jodhpur. His grand personality and unique spiritual ora attracted my attention. I used to meet him, almost daily and I was certain that one day he will bring glory to India. It is really sad that Dr Rao never got recognition despite such astounding discoveries. People in power (including his seniors), shamefully tried their best to curtail his success. It is ongoing phenomena in India. Wrong people go up to the ladder and make sure nobody else get any limelight. He will remain my hero for rest of life and I wish him all the success.

    on Feb 24, 2013

    First of all I would like to begin this by thanking Ms. Seema Singh for bringing this article in to Lime light. Well I cannot go much deep into the technical side of this article, I would like to comment on the article written by Ms. Seema Singh. Well Sir C.V.Raman who was the first Indian discoverer, Dr. Rao is the second Indian to do 6 discoveries from past 20 -25 years to till as of now. He has spent most of his life in doing research on the six discoveries by spending his own pension funds. He has also proposed new atomic phenomenon which was published by Brazilian journal of physics in 2010. As his research was accepted by the Russians and Bulgarians who are very scientifically forward than our country which itself is strong recommendation and very high recognition to support his intellectual work. Also one of the IIT DELHI professors had certified his work but regretted about the current recognition of his work in our country which is the main drawback. I really got disappointed when I read that he was not given any kind of financial support from the government of INDIA or any other national level universities for attending the conferences all over world and towards his experiments and not even a single recognition from the top scientists in our country. As he got retired as deputy director at defense laboratory Jodhpur which is one of the highly esteemed labs in INDIA, so it emphasizes us that he is very intellectual and extra ordinary person. I urge the national level universities and government of INDIA to recognize and support his extra ordinary work at global level which really encourages him to perform more and more glorious experiments. In terms of recognition the Europeans had trusted and recognized his work, then why can’t the INDIANS recognize his work. If we the Indians do not support our fellow citizen, it’s really a shame on our part. The INDIAN youth really wants people like Dr. Rao to be in the country’s premier positions like PRESIDENT OF INDIA or as a RAJYA SABHA MEMBER. We want such scientific persons to let our country towards progress. I am sure that Dr. Rao will be some day a national pride and we all will be really proud of him. He has to be conferred Bharat Ratna award in terms of scientific research. Dr. Rao’s discoveries without recognition are like hidden treasures which are to be uncovered. If they are brought in to lime light, then they may change the face of the global scientific facts.

    on Feb 14, 2013
  • vani

    Its true dedication that Dr.Rao without any outside help spent so many years and personal finances researching. My heartfelt wishes to him. He is an inspiration. Sad that fellow scientist failed to recognize and promote his work. I hope his hard work does not go in vain and he receives the recognition he is due.

    on Feb 13, 2013
  • vani

    It is very sad to learn about the plight of the scientists in India and thank you Seema for highlighting it. And we wonder why we don’t hear about many discoveries in India. The situation is dire and very discouraging for the younger generation. The question is how do we bring about a change?

    on Feb 13, 2013
  • nayna sharma

    I completely agree with Rajani. Why aren’t discoveries and inventions being facilitated? Our kids still read about discoveries and inventions accomplished in history. Today, the present generation has nothing new to talk about. WHY? Isn’t it obvious? The reason is known to all, but everyone is oblivious to it. Why are talent, and abilities curbed in India? Are the people so intimidated, that they are lying dormant? The present state of affairs is so overwhelming, that my heart reaches out to Dr.Rao. He has inspired all conscientious men to keep doing what you are supposed to do, rather than wait for an occasion. My empathies lie with Dr.Rao, who has been a lone struggler. Dr. Rao has the potential to bring fame to our country, and I wish our scientists could come forward and support him in realize his dream. We have many eminent institutions like BARC and DRDO’s, why aren’t they forth coming on this issue? Seema, I congratulate you on your enthralling editorial column. But is it possible for you to get opinion from some other scientists? I don’t think we have the patience to listen to more of Mr.Sandhu complacent behavior. It would be great to hear from some somebody who is currently employed.

    on Feb 10, 2013
    • Seema Singh

      Nayna: To your query on whether it is possible to get a reaction on the technical merit of this paper from a practising scientist, I don't know. I did send out the paper to someone i don't know personally but didn't hear from him. This community is closed and they don't oblige with such requests. Moreover, since the paper is a few years old, I didn't want to get too much into the technical aspect but bring to light the human story. Secondly, Dr Rao did want to write about his further work on this site but I requested him not to publish anything here as that would jeopardise his prospects of academic publication. I wish him all the luck for this round of publication.

      on Feb 15, 2013
  • Rajani Jeyarajan

    I thank Forbes and Seema for bringing to light the plight of scientists in India. My heartfelt wishes to Dr.Rao for all his contributions to our country and to the field of nuclear physics. With only his passion to navigate him through the dark room, in an effort to find the dark hat, Dr.Rao has demonstrated that you CAN go to great heights even when it's all dark. To critics - If you think his theory is incorrect, then prove him wrong. If you think his proof is insufficient then provide him the resources for him to demonstrate his work. We neither live in pre-war Europe nor do we live in the middle ages, when heliocentric theory was outrightly rejected just because "it didn't SEEM right". If we fail to recognize and promote the work of our own scientists - what is the message we are sending to our future generations? If you aspire to be a scientist, just follow the trend - get your education in India and head west? When will we adopt the culture to reward an Indian for his talents and hardwork without bureaucracy? Let it be NOW and let it be US that brought this change. Dr.Rao is a great inspiration for us and our future generations, and I hope that his work will be duly recognized.

    on Feb 10, 2013
  • ashwin moonga

    Such is a plight in India. It is unfortunate, where a great person like Dr.Rao is struggling hard to shed light on his work, and there is not a single scientist who could come forward to speak up. But yes, we have people like Sandhu sitting at the comfort of their homes, who are hostile and antagonistic. What happened to other scientist, where are they? Whys is only Mr.Sandhu doing all the talking. Is he the representative of the all the Indian scientists? If your ideas differ from Dr. Rao, how about you give him a lab, to demonstrate the work and explain. Well, I don’t think that will ever happen. Who has time in India to think about such issues. If we were so forthcoming, definitely India would be a developed country. Instead of giving comments which are detrimental towards one’s work and name, it would be better if Mr.Sandu can provide proof, or give opportunity to demonstrate, or at the end please accept and respect.

    on Feb 9, 2013
  • harpritdillon

    Dear Dr Rao, I have been following this blog from past few days. All I can say is it is an honor to have people like you who have been working for years to get some fame to our country. Please ignore what Mr. Sandhu has to write. He is idle man’s brain is devil’s workshop. He is one of those people (sadist), loves inflicting pain. Since he can’t appreciate, he loves ridiculing. He is here just to get publicity for his ridiculous work. I have visited your links read your publications in detail and I am really impressed with the kind of work you have been doing. I wish Indian government could present you with an award for your work. Please keep on with your endeavor.

    on Feb 9, 2013
  • Ashwin Moonga

    Dr Rao Saheb, Please accept my congratulations for your publication in Brazilian Journal of Physics. You are a source of inspiration to other scientists in India. I wish you could get help from government. In India it is very difficult to get approval. But I wish you all the luck.

    on Feb 9, 2013
  • M.A.Padmanabha Rao, PhD (AIIMS)

    Dear Gp. Capt. G. S. Sandhu (Retd.) Thanks for your profound wishes. EX-SCIENTIST FROM DRDO CONFIRMED MY THREE EXPERIMENTAL DISOVERIES IN PHYSICS: In this reply, you have not denied my three experimental discoveries in physics mentioned in my reply to you on 7th Feb 13. You should have a conviction to say the truth that they are truly discoveries, instead of indirectly saying now in your reply on Feb 8th ‘I again confirm it, that is, your experimental work is excellent’. I have detected the light emission for the first time from radioisotopes and XRF sources only through two new optical techniques that I developed. DRDO and GOVERNMENT OF INDIA MAY PLEASE TAKE A NOTE ON THE THREE EXPERIMENTAL DISCOVERIES DONE IN INDIA. FIRST SCIENTIST TO REVEAL GAP IN ELECTROMAGNETIC SPECTRUM BHARAT RADIATION OCCUPIES THAT GAP For the first time, I have reported in an International Symposium held at the University of Michigan, USA in 1998, a wavelength gap in Electromagnetic spectrum between Rb X-rays and Rb optical line spectrum, where Bharat Radiation wavelengths exist. I have spent Rs. 1,20,000/ from my own retirement benefit to see the work published at international level. In the Braz. J. Phy, Mar 2010, I have reported in Fig.5 that X-rays generate the previously unknown Bharat radiation, which in turn causes Extre ultraviolet (EUV), UV, visible and infrared radiations. Bharat radiation can be surely detected with solid state detector. BHARAT RADIATION WAS DETECTED BY ASTROPHYSICISTS SINCE 1960s Astrophysicists were able to measure the solar spectrum using rockets and satellites since 1960s, but it was not impossible to interpret what the three distinct wavelength ranges represent that look like mounts. I am now able to interpret them as solar X-rays up to 12.87 nm , Bharat Radiation (12.87 to 31 nm), and Extreme Ultraviolet Radiation from 31 nm onwards from the noteworthy solar spectrum measured by Woods et all. reported in 2011. Before retirement in Sept 1997, I have spent my last 9 yrs at Jodhpur in doing the experimental work and to explain new atomic phenomenon. It is a small laboratory established by me. There are no advance experimental facilities to detect Bharat radiation with solid state detectors used in satellites. So please don’t blame me for my inability to do further work in limited time and resources available. I NEED IMMEDIATE INSTITUTATIONAL SUPPORT TO PUBLISH THE DISCOVERY OF SUN’S BHARAT RADIATION EMISSION. Please do not point out a finger at me for not giving further theoretical support on Bharat Radiation, which is not essential. You may please try, if feel important. BHARAT RADIATION & HIGH EXPECTATION OF THE PEOPLE Slashdot Poll predicted “Bharat Radiation” might get highest Prize in the World in 2008: http://slashdot.org/pollBooth.pl?qid=1651&aid=7&reskey=&from=rss I did not work for the last 22 years on the breakthrough research anticipating some award or Prize. INTERNATIONAL HONOR FOR COMPTON BACK-SCATTERING TECHNIQUE (1974) Dear Mr. Sandhu, you are arguing only on one topic, the role of Compton effect. I am not sure whether you have published any research paper on Compton effect, but I would like to mention what I have reported for the first time in the world on imaging of human body surface which also helps in visualizing cavities inside using Compton back-scattered gamma radiation (please peruse my resume: www.¬angelfire.¬com/¬sc3/-1010/¬resume.¬html). For reporting the previously unknown technique, I am invited by the World Federation of Nuclear Medicine and Biology to represent India as its ASSEMBLY MEMBER FROM INDIA as a leader to 11 Indian scientists and doctors during the First World Congress of Nuclear Medicine held at Tokyo in 1974. Dear Mr. Sandhu, my entire work has dealt on excited atom in radioisotopes and XRF sources. The excited atom will have core electrons in K-and L shell usually. In the case of tritium where only one electron exists in K shell, I have reported TRITIUM EMITS BHARAT RADIATION. Therefore, institutions like BARC should investigate this. What you are talking is a bare nucleus. Why do n’t you say ‘proton’ in simple words? My phenomenon is not on the already known bremsstrahlung, so unnecessary to discuss here. WHO ARE THE TOP 10 INDIAN SCIENTISTS? http://wiki.answers.com/Q/Who_are_the_top_10_Indian_scientists Answer: M.A.Padmanabha Rao- made Six Fundamental Physics Discoveries including the discovery of Bharat Radiation. APJ Abdul Kalam - known as the 'missile man of India', architect of Agni series of nuclear missile. Ashok Gadgil - inventor of the UV-disinfection method Abhay Ashtekar - known for "Ashtekar Variables", and a founder of the theory of Loop quantum gravity Atul Kumar - medicinal chemist, developer of a new antiosteoporosis drug candidate Anurag chaurasia- working with ICAR,discovered anticancer molecules in Piper betle Jagdish Chandra Bose - pioneer of radio and microwave optics and inventor of the crescograph Prem Chand Pandey - oceanographer, meteorologist, physicist, and founder director of the NCAOR, the Indian Antarctic Program Shreeram Shankar Abhyankar - mathematician, known for his work in algebraic geometry and Abhyankar's conjecture Subhash Mukhopadhyay -created the world's second and India's first child using in-vitro fertilisation, Someone has rated as shown above. If this public opinion is true, DRDO may please recommend to Govt. of India to provide at least a seat on the carpet, besides the chairs of eminent scientists for 1 year in any academic or research institute so that I can publish two more papers before my energies are lost at 75 yrs. Please see how Stephen Hawking is given so much encouragement in UK.

    on Feb 9, 2013
  • Gp. Capt. G. S. Sandhu (Retd.)

    Dear Dr. Rao,
    I had already appreciated your excellent experimental work in the first post. I again confirm it, that is, your experimental work is excellent. If you win a Nobel prize for this experimental work, I would like to be the first person to congratulate you for that. But unfortunately you have vitiated the quality of that work by introducing your conjecture of "Bharat Radiation" in it. Your lengthy repetitive explanations are not addressing the core issue. You have neither provided any theoretical basis nor any mathematical support and not even any experimental detection of "Bharat Radiation". You have experimentally detected UV dominant optical emissions and NOT the "Bharat Radiation".

    Let me make one last attempt to make you understand that your conjecture of "Bharat Radiation" is wrong and unwarranted. For this let me first elaborate on the point - (a) Fundamentally, any high energy photon passing through a 'core-Coulomb' field cannot generate an additional low energy photon or lose energy without direct interaction with some shell electron. To elaborate this point, consider a bare nucleus (with all shell electrons removed) of the radioactive atom. The high energy gamma photons coming out of the nucleus will simply pass through the 'core-Coulomb' field without any energy loss because there are no electrons in the shells for any interaction. As per your conjecture, the gamma photon while passing through the 'core-Coulomb' field should generate electromagnetic "Bharat Radiation" in the wavelength range from 12.87 to 31 nm, which can be experimentally detected. This is the core issue which you are either unwilling or unable to understand. There is NO physical process or theoretical mechanism which can enable the gamma photon passing through the Coulomb field of the bare nucleus to generate a child photon or your "Bharat Radiation" without any direct interaction with shell electrons.

    Second point that needs to be stressed is - (b) Well known mechanism of direct interaction of a high energy photon with some shell electron is through Compton scattering. This mechanism can transfer from ZERO to some maximum value of gamma photon energy to the interacting shell electron, depending on the magnitude of the collision parameter (miss distance) and ensuring the conservation of momentum and energy. If the collision parameter (miss distance) is a LITTLE less than the upper limit b2 (as explained in my first post), then the energy transferred by gamma photon to the interacting shell electron will be a LITTLE more than ZERO; that is this energy transferred to the electron could be in the eV range for which you are POSTULATING your "Bharat Radiation". In the last post you have stated, "In Compton Effect also gamma goes through core-Coulomb space but little away from core electron, so gamma shares just part of its energy to the electron." You are prepared to agree that "gamma shares just PART OF its energy to the electron", but you are not prepared to accept that this PART OF could also be a LITTLE MORE THAN ZERO, in the eV range. Please reflect on this and reconcile with the fact that there is just no need to postulate fictitious "Bharat Radiation" as the emission of UV dominant optical emissions can be fully explained by proper application of the Compton scattering mechanism.
    I am sorry, I can't do more than this to convince you.

    G. S. Sandhu

    on Feb 8, 2013
  • M.A.Padmanabha Rao, PhD (AIIMS)

    Dear Gp. Capt. G. S. Sandhu (Retd.),
    Thank you for congratulating me for the excellent experimental work. I have answered here to clear your doubts on my already published work, to enlighten the readers on the breakthroughs India has made in physics. The two experimental techniques that you read took 2 years for development and confirmation of the suspected light emission as previously unknown, and very low intense UV dominant optical emission that cannot be seen with naked eye from Rb XRF (X-ray fluorescence) source from AMC 2084, U.K. and from other XRF sources and radioisotopes. Based on my official Technical Report No: DLJ/ IL/ 97/ 7 of the Defence Laboratory at Jodhpur Dr. K.S. Jayraman, nuclear physicist and eminent Science Editor, Press Trust of India, Delhi was the first in using the word ‘discovery’ for my light detection, in April 1997, while releasing the news to Indian Dailies. Hindustan Times said “Emission of light discovered from atoms”. http://www.angelfire.com/sc3/1010/publications.html . What you vaguely remember was the news on my discovery from DRDO when you say “the basic phenomenon of 'ionizing radiations' generating additional UV and optical emissions, is not new”. That is how, I am ignoring it since you failed to provide any pertinent references, absolutely necessary to substantiate your doubt on published work as per norms of ethics in science. Otherwise, as an ex-DRDO employee you now question DRDO, why the Director ( a nuclear physicist) of the Defence Laboratory, at Jodhpur has released the official Technical Report on my research in 1997. M A Padmanabha Rao, (1997) ATOMIC EMISSION OF LIGHT FROM SOURCES OF IONIZING RADIATION BY A NEW PHENOMENON, Technical Report No: DLJ/ IL/ 97/ 7 http://www.angelfire.com/sc3/1010/technicalreport.html Notably, top American scientists acknowledged my physics discoveries in publishing my abstract: M A Padmanabha Rao, DISCOVERY OF LIGHT EMISSION FROM XRF SOURCES, Presented in 50th Annual Denver Conference, Steamboat Springs, Colorado State, U.S.A., 2001, www.dxcicdd.com/01/pdf/F-01.pdf The above abstract, and the abstract in Braz. J. Phy, 2010 claimed first and definite experimental evidence on UV dominant optical emission from radiochemicals, XRF sources present as chemicals, and radioisotopes and XRF sources present as metals. Many websites can be seen in Internet supporting the view that these are three fundamental physics discoveries. It is immaterial whether I or you did but the importance lies in the fact that these are originated from India. Do you agree now?
    Leading experts from BARC and Kalkata (1997, 1998), USA (1998, 2001), Bulgaria (2002), and Russia (2008) heard my research presentations and published my work as abstracts, and in proceedings. Finally, Bharat Radiation emission predicted from radioisotopes and XRF sources was published 3 years ago in Braz. J.Phy, 2010. It is my fourth fundamental physics discovery. Importance of Bharat Radiation was cited in Braz. arch. biol. technol. 51, n.2, p. 271, Mar./Apr. 2008. http://www.scielo.br/pdf/babt/v51n2/a06v51n2.pdf Noted European X-ray specialists cited the phenomenon as follows “The phenomenon of optical emission predominantly in the UV, which accompanies the emission of X-rays, gamma rays, and beta radiation from radioisotope sources and X-ray tubes was investigated by Rao. It was the first work in which the emission of UV radiation was confirmed experimentally and a possible explanation for the mechanism of the UV emission was given by the author” Margaret West et all , J. Anal. At. Spectrom., 2011, 26, 1919-1963, DOI: 10.1039/C1JA90038B , http://pubs.rsc.org/en/Content/ArticleLanding/2011/JA/c1ja90038b Therefore, the phenomenon on gamma, beta, and X-ray generating Bharat radiation followed by UV dominant optical emission is well accepted by scientific community at large in the world. However, anyone can publish another paper, if the said light emission can be better explained by some other phenomenon. Without making such efforts, it is not the norm in science to make an unethical and objectionable statement for Mr. Sandhu to denounce “Bharat Radiation is basically unwarranted and wrong.” Anyhow, I clarify for readers why prediction of Bharat radiation became necessary to explain optical emission newly detected. In various publications, I have succeeded in explaining Bharat Radiation as the source to UV dominant light emission newly detected from radioisotopes and XRF sources by a previously unknown atomic phenomenon, which is claimed as my sixth fundamental physics discovery. Gamma, beta, and characteristic X-rays ionize the atom but cannot excite valence electron into optical levels. Therefore, I have realized that some other energy is generated by gamma, beta, and X-ray within the same excited atom of a radioisotope or XRF source with energy at eV level but higher than that of UV, termed temporarily as Bharat Radiation. It is an important prediction. I have clearly explained that those ionizing radiations first generate Bharat Radiation while passing through core-Coulomb field. More importantly, I have succeeded in explaining why low energy of Rb X-ray from Rb XRF source causes UV intensity as high as 99.62% in gross light intensity and why high energy of beta from 90-Y causes just 83%UV. Compton scattering that you mentioned, which deals with only gamma or X-ray cannot explain the ‘new class of atomic spectra of solids notably at room temperature’. The new phenomenon differs entirely from Photoelectric effect, Compton effect or Bremsstrahlung, and explains for the first time what happens when a beta particle passes through core Coulomb space. This is the most plausible explanation that I have provided for light emission that I have experimentally detected from beta emitting radioisotopes.

    You said, “The electron, after gaining small amount of energy from the photon will get pushed to some higher atomic shell (valence excitation), leading to the subsequent UV and optical emissions”. Please permit me to clarify the basic physics. Compton electron simply escapes from atom and it is the outermost electron that goes to valence excitation. ‘Compton electron doing valence excitation leading to optical emission’ is your (Sandhu’s) presumption and a wrong feed to readers when Nuclear Physics does not say this. As a physicist, I expect you to understand what I have detected, when you say “UV and optical emissions”. UV is also optical emission! It is UV dominant optical emission. So far thermal excitation is known causing valence excitation resulting into the familiar atomic spectra. The new physics shown in my work is Bharat radiation does valence excitation resulting into UV dominant optical emission.

    on Feb 6, 2013
    • Gp. Capt. G. S. Sandhu (Retd.)

      Dear Dr. Rao, I am sorry to have offended you by my fair and frank comments. If you are unwilling or unable to understand the physical mechanism of Compton scattering that is responsible for the optical radiation detected by you, I can't help it. Sorry once again!

      Regarding your "DISCOVERY of Bharat radiation" you have used the terms like, 'the author has POSTULATED', 'I have REALIZED', 'MIGHT BE generating some energy', 'to which I TERMED AS Bharat Radiation', 'SOME previously UNKNOWN energy generated within an excited atom COULD BE RESPONSIBLE', 'The author has thus MADE A POSTULATE that within an excited atom the ionizing radiations first generate SOME exciting energy', 'TERMED TEMPORARILY as Bharat Radiation for CONVENIENCE'. Further you have mentioned that 'a detailed mathematical explanation can follow based on detailed spectral studies in future'. All this implies that you have simply made a conjecture of "Bharat radiation" and have made no effort to provide any theoretical basis or mathematical support for this conjecture. At the top of it, while making this conjecture, you did not even consider the Compton scattering mechanism. Even now you are unwilling or unable to understand that (a) Fundamentally, any high energy photon passing through a 'core-Coulomb' field cannot generate an additional low energy photon or lose energy without direct interaction with some shell electron. And that (b) Well known mechanism of direct interaction of a high energy photon with some shell electron is through Compton scattering.

      Therefore, I still maintain that your conjecture of "Bharat Radiation" is unwarranted and wrong. Finally, let me reproduce some relevant comments from the Web regarding your so called "Bharat Radiation".

      In UNIVERSE TODAY [http://www.universetoday.com/] there was an article, "Something New On the Sun: SDO Spots a Late Phase in Solar Flares" by Nancy Atkinson on September 7, 2011. [http://www.universetoday.com/88727/something-new-on-the-sun-sdo-spots-a-late-phase-in-solar-flares/]
      You made some comments on that article using your "Bharat radiation" (Dark Radiation), which was critically responded to by Torbjörn Larsson from Sweden. He wrote, "the use of hypothetical radiation and its ties to biological effects and the absurd claim that U235 fission can potentially replace fusion in stellar physics, scream pathological science to a reader of science blogs". Further he writes, "The journal it is published in claims it is editorial and "expert" reviewed, not the usual peer review and no review information is available. Even if peer reviewed this is likely a paper that shouldn't have been published. And coincidentally, Google Scholar says no one (except MAP Rao) references "Bharat radiation", it is not viable science".

      G S Sandhu

      on Feb 7, 2013
      • M.A.Padmanabha Rao, PhD (AIIMS)

        Dear Gp. Capt. G. S. Sandhu (Retd.)
        Sandhu accepted my three experimental discoveries:

        In your comment today (Feb 7th) I expected that you will provide pertinent references to your “false” statement made in your last comment on Feb 5th, ‘the basic phenomenon of ionizing radiations generating additional UV and optical emissions, is not new’. Since you failed to provide any references, if any, prior to my work on experimentally detected UV dominant optical emission from (i) radiochemicals, (ii) XRF sources present as chemicals, and (iii) radioisotopes and XRF sources present as metals that means you are openly agreeing that these are three fundamental physics discoveries.

        Bharat Radiation: Regarding your comment, ‘you have simply made a conjecture of "Bharat radiation" and have made no effort to provide any theoretical basis or mathematical support for this conjecture’. The most important is phenomenological explanation how gamma, beta, or X-ray generates Bharat Radiation, which in turn causes UV dominant optical emission that I already provided in Braz.J.Phy, Mar 2010. On page 44, I have provided the brief and necessary mathematical support. Cherenkov reported only Cherenkov radiation. Mathematical explanation was provided by two others subsequently. All of them received Nobel Prize. Anyone can publish a paper giving a detailed mathematical explanation, if felt necessary. What is preferred is experimental evidence on the existence of Bharat Radiation.

        New atomic phenomenon: Propounding a new atomic phenomenon became necessary for me because previously known phenomenon including Compton effect cannot explain optical emission from metal sources like 57-Co, as clarified in my previous reply to you on Feb 6th . You want me to explain influence of gamma, beta, and X-ray on core electron. In photoelectric effect the incident gamma directly hits core electron. And when its energy is transferred to core electron it escapes from atom as photoelectron. In Compton Effect also gamma goes through core-Coulomb space but little away from core electron, so gamma shares just part of its energy to the electron. Therefore, both Compton scattered gamma with lesser energy and Compton (core) electron escape from atom. In the new phenomenon, not only gamma, and X-ray but also beta also pass through core-Coulomb space but more away from core electron, than in the case of Compton effect, as a result of which K shell electron is unaffected; however gamma, beta, or X-ray loses just in eV (40.81 to 95.45 eV). Is it clear now? If you have a better explanation, please publish it.

        Discovery of Bharat Radiation: You still commented, “I still maintain that your conjecture of "Bharat Radiation" is unwarranted and wrong”. In science, we have clear understanding on published material, as a research paper. As I mentioned in my previous reply to you yesterday, usefulness of Bharat radiation was already reported in two international journals, but none has published against Bharat Radiation in any journal ever since the ‘Bharat Radiation emission was presented at the University of Michigan, USA in 1998. Expressing purely as a personal opinion in a Blog or website, you or someone else have liberty to reject Bharat radiation, yet the world community of scientists believes published work.

        Evidence of Bharat Radiation in solar spectrum: Like you, Torbjom Larrson also annoyed on me when I expressed, the following ‘The spectral lines shown here are due to stable isotopes. However, my research work strongly suggests that they could be due to radioisotopes or XRF sources, reported in Braz. J. Phy, March 2010. I do not wish to discuss much on my unpublished or yet to be published work on solar physics. After the appearance of the Blog you cited: ‘Something New On the Sun: SDO Spots a Late’, the authors Woods et all have published their paper in 2011. I have gone through their full paper that Woods has kindly sent to me. I have found existence of Bharat Radiation from 12.87 to 31 nm in his solar spectrum reported in the Blog you have cited, and the same published in his paper in 2011. A draft of my research paper on evidence of Bharat Radiation in solar spectrum is ready, but the difficulty comes to publish the paper in solar physics from home. I need an immediate institutional support for publication.

        on Feb 7, 2013
      • Hima Potharaju

        Unfortunately I feel you have some grudge against an fellow Indian doing some work. From your comments, I feel you are just emphasizing on what you know and don't want to give the other person a fair chance. Not only that, you have been been scanning for all the negative reports published and highlighting it. Wow, one does have free time. I am impressed how you have been sugar coating your words and dishonouring one's work. Mr. Sandhu it would be greatly appreciated, if you could for once go and do some research in the field ( not finding more rejected articles) pertaining to UV dominant optical emission, and if you can find some authentic proof, then please enjoy rejecting Dr.Rao's work.

        on Feb 7, 2013
  • A Anantha Vijaya

    It is highly deplorable, the state of conditions prevailing in Research field in India. Dr. M.A.Padmanabha Rao should be immediately honoured with Emeritus Scientist position with all benefits & perks and should be provided with funding by Govt. of India to pursue further research to take India to greater heights.

    on Feb 5, 2013
  • DR Sunil kumar upadhyay

    respected seemaji. I Salute u for highlighting this tragic condition of research field.It is an eye opener for researchers.IF You r well to do only then should you think about research.In kolkata respected president n PM spoke about facilities being given to researchers. I salute Dr Rao for his passion.god bless him.

    on Jan 30, 2013
  • DR Sunil kumar upadhyay

    respected sir, namaskar first i salute u because u r pride of India.YOU R NOT ONLY VICTIM.Plz do your work as usual with full zeal.God will give u reward.As a teacher i wish u all success in life.A time will come when your Bharat radiation will gain popularity.

    on Jan 30, 2013
  • Hima Potharaju

    It does not come as a surprise to me that people have to struggle hard for years to get their voices heard or get recognition.It is sad that in India, people like Dr.Rao have been working and spending personal money to get fame for his country. Scientists need to be given some voice. How long can we refer to previous scientific work and contributions? Even today, we have inventions and discoveries taking place, then why are they not being showcased? I hope this article is an eye opener to all my fellow Indians. I hope people awaken and realize that we have so much that we can contribute to the world. Speak up people before it is too late.

    on Jan 30, 2013
  • Hima Potharaju

    I am not surprised, that talent and intelligence has no recognition in India. The day when one's effort is accepted and credited, India will be a different country. That is when it will truely be called "Mera Bharat Mahan". It is sad how people have to struggle for years to get their voices to be heard, to get their work published. Indeed it is a sorry state of affairs and we still acclaim as India a country of fortunate. really?

    on Jan 30, 2013
  • Vijaya

    It's true ethical nature of indian system has gone down. Though efforts are pushed towards it, the process is very slow. I feel sorry that a scientist like mr. Rao is not recognized for selfish reasons of fellow members. I applaud his discovery and wish that at least now India shows some interest in it and make use of it.

    on Jan 29, 2013
    • DR Sunil kumar upadhyay

      hi vijayji. I M with u on this issue.It is geat loss of nation.how a person will think to do research.Our govt should take notice n appreciate his work.wish him all success.

      on Jan 30, 2013
  • Raman Krishnan

    Isn't it possible that his 'discovery' is garbage and THEREFORE unpublished? Looking for spectral lines is regressive science, this isn't pre war Europe. And a professor at IIT Dellhi who attests Rao's work can't even get Rao's work published even in Current Science or any of the INSA journals? Gimme a break!!!

    on Jan 29, 2013
    • M.A. Padmanabha Rao, PhD (AIIMS)

      Dear Raman Krishnan, your comments are very typical of the way many Indians make a mockery of any fellow Indian making a claim of a breakthrough in any discipline. With the same mentality that the research work could be a ‘garbage’ from a native Indian, three Indian Journals rejected my paper without giving any sound justification . I can understand that the language may not be very good, but the scientific facts are original and new. As I interepret my situation, both Indian and foreign journals felt that an Indian cannot do this kind of fundamental physics research, when the entire 9 pages in the published paper is totally new to Physics and when our track record shows that no native Indian has done any physics discoveries after Sir C.V. Raman. You have not understood what is new about those spectral lines. ‘A new class of atomic spectra was observed from radioisotopes and XRF sources in solid form notably at room temperature’. In 1996, one Referee of Radiation Measurement (USA) could not believe my claim on optical emission from Mo XRF source present as Mo metal, since light emission from metal at room temperature is a revolutionary finding in physics. He tested and found true but he mistook this as luminescence so the paper was rejected, though the other Referee accepted my paper. The spectral lines are generated by Bharat Radiation, internally produced within an excited atom, on valence excitation. True, this isn't pre war Europe, but India. So far, India has learned so much on X-ray, nuclear physics, atomic spectroscopy and solar physics from the west. Now, India has offered new physics in all these disciples to the rest of the world. What is important is let Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, and Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics test my experimental findings, so that India leads the world in Physics. They knew about my research when I presented it at Kolkata in 1997, and Jodhpur in 1998. My research work is already published and is open to scientists of the entire world. I have presented my research in USA, Bulgaria and Russia and it was well received.

      on Jan 31, 2013
      • Gp. Capt. G. S. Sandhu (Retd.)

        Dear Dr. Rao,
        I have just studied your paper titled "UV dominant optical emission newly detected from radioisotopes and XRF sources", published in Brazilian Journal of Physics. Let me first congratulate you for your excellent experimental work. However, I am sorry to say that I cannot agree with your conjecture of "Bharat Radiation".

        You say, "In nut shell, the current study describes ionizing radiations successively generate two low energy electromagnetic radiation emissions at eV level: Bharat (predicted) and optical emissions from within excited atoms of radioisotopes, and XRF sources." Under the belief that the ionizing radiations with keV or MeV energies fail to do valence excitation to optical levels, you made a postulate that within an excited atom the ionizing radiations first generate some 'exciting energy' at eV level, so that they do valence excitation resulting into UV emission. For brief phenomenological explanation of the generation of such 'exciting energy' at eV level, you have postulated that Ionizing radiation energy at keV or MeV level loses energy at eV level while passing through a core-Coulomb field. The energy thus lost in the core-Coulomb field reappears as exciting energy radiation which you have termed as Bharat energy or Bharat radiation.

        Your conjecture of "Bharat Radiation" is basically unwarranted and wrong due to following reasons.
        (a) Fundamentally, any high energy photon passing through a 'core-Coulomb' field cannot lose energy without direct interaction with some shell electron.
        (b) Well known mechanism of direct interaction of a high energy photon with some shell electron is through Compton scattering.
        (c) In Compton scattering, the energy transferred from the photon to the electron depends on the impact parameter b of their collusion and governs the deflection of the photon from its original flight path. (d) If their collusion impact parameter is less than certain critical value b1 then the photon-electron collusion can be considered as direct impact, in which case the photon will transfer bulk of its energy to the electron, knocking it out of the atom.
        (e) If their collusion impact parameter is more than certain upper limit b2 then the photon-electron collusion can be considered as non-interacting, with no energy transfer and the photon path will remain un-deflected.
        (f) If however, the impact parameter is greater than b1 but less than b2, then the photon will lose a small portion of its energy to the electron and get slightly deflected from its flight path. The electron, after gaining small amount of energy from the photon will get pushed to some higher atomic shell (valence excitation), leading to the subsequent UV and optical emissions.

        Therefore the basic phenomenon of 'ionizing radiations' generating additional UV and optical emissions, is not new and your conjecture of "Bharat Radiation" is unwarranted and wrong.

        But I appreciate your excellent experimental work and overall contribution.

        With best wishes for a happy and contented retired life,

        G. S. Sandhu
        Group Captain (Retd.)

        on Feb 5, 2013
    • Hima Potharaju

      Before addressing somebody's work as garbage , it would be better if you would take some time and understand the work Dr.Rao has done. If it was not authenthic it would not have been published in Brazilian Physics magazine. Now, if you may find that also very much unbelievable, then god help you. We need to first learn to respect and trust each other, then only will be be able to understand and emphathise the situation.

      on Jan 31, 2013
    • Seema Singh

      Raman Krishnan: You ask, is it possible his work is garbage? Maybe, but then let somebody say so. It's been two years since his work is in public domain, nobody has said that. Nor have his journal reviewers said so. (I checked about some of those referee reactions.) As for this being regressive science, I think fundamental research has to be more generous than that. Moreover, he says these are not the traditional spectral lines of last 150 years, but a new kind of atomic spectra. As for its usefulness, maybe it'd help people understand that along with other rays, Bharat Radiation adds to the radiation dose when people are exposed to X-rays. Now for your remark about his IIT-D friend helping him publish somewhere, I don't think scientific publication is like publishing an Oped column. There's a peer review process and often times even if one reviewer has a negative comment or doubt, the publication is stalled. By the way, he did send his paper to CNR Rao, the grand old man of Indian science, who kept it for a while and then suggested this should be sent to a more specialized journal. He didn't say it's 'garbage.'

      on Jan 30, 2013
      • renuka

        seema, your blog has been totally validated by raman krishnan's response. raman has reacted very typically of a person of today's times-unwilling to make an effort to form his own opinion and happy to piggy back on the thoughts of a herd. raman, the language that you use in a public forum is deplorable. having assumed you to be a person of some learning(assumed), it would have been a matter of YOUR opinion had you actually read the work of Dr Rao-researched on the basics of it, before making your sentiments on the topic known. instead you merely assumed that since he has no support of the herd-read the elitist scientist galaxy, he is "garbage". i suggest you watch some animation movies "Ice Age 2, Nemo, "for inspiration on how it is the "outcast" who changes the world and how much it takes to work alone against the tide. Just to close by saying, in the remotest possibility that Dr Rao's work has no merit, basic decency would entail us to respect hard work, honesty and diligence of several decades in the hope of making a difference. but then decency is not an acquired trait. Each to his own raman, but it has to be HIS OWN!!!! where is YOUR opinion??

        on Feb 1, 2013
  • surendra

    India is in decline mode now so not going to recognize its own scientist,engineers and doctors. in that type of country politics work every where and no nationality exist in corrupt politicians . so Mr. Rao go ahead and do your part of work. there is some chance that world recognize your work after your life over and should check every page of your diary or notepads even dustbin.

    on Jan 29, 2013
  • divya

    thanks Seema for writing this. its sad to know the fact how scientists are recognized in India. and we always thought there are no science discoveries done in India. this might be the reason why. But Mr. Rao's story of fighting against the odds and still continuing to work so hard inspite of no recognition is inspiring. i just wish him all the best.

    on Jan 29, 2013
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