Workers gather for a ceremony that marks the beginning of bulk production of advanced 3-nanometer chips at a Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Co. (TSMC) facility in Tainan, Taiwan, December 29, 2022. It took decades for Taiwan to emerge as a semiconductor giant, which began with the transfer of technology from the US in the 1970s to the setting up of TSMC in 1987. The world's biggest contract chip manufacturer today, TSMC's clients include Apple, Intel, Qualcomm, AMD and Nvidia. The $550 billion firm controls more than half the global market for made-to-order chips and has an even tighter stranglehold on the most advanced processors, with more than 90% of the market share by some estimates. Global chip sales were $574 billion as of 2022.