Dr. Bang is founder-director of SEARCH, an NGO that provides community health care to the tribes of Gadchiroli district in Maharashtra. With an MD from Nagpur University and a Masters in Public Health from John Hopkins, Bang and his wife Rani have worked at reducing infant mortality rates by 50 percent in the areas they operate in. He is currently a member of the National Commission on Population and also serves on the advisory board for the global Saving Newborn Lives Initiative
The world is increasingly being shaped by new knowledge. The inventions of the steam engine and automobile, of telephone and television, of vitamins and vaccines have shaped our lives more than the presidents and prime ministers of those times. ‘How to achieve 10 percent rate of economic growth?’ is a less important question than how to achieve growth of knowledge by way of research.
However, there is a potential problem. Those who will generate and own knowledge will own the world. Those who don’t will be slaves. Disparity in research capacity will be worse than economic disparity because it is more fundamental. Therefore, for true democracy, it is necessary that people be a partner in research. Research with the People!
Can this become a reality? What will be its features?
My school of learning is a community of nearly 100 villages in Gadchiroli district in the central part of India. This is a poor, undeveloped rural area where people survive on agriculture and forest, truly representing rural India. In the past 25 years, while working with these semi-literate people, we have learnt some cardinal rules of Research with the People.
Rule Number 1, research is to be conducted where the problems are, and not where the facilities are. Usually, the places with facilities are overcrowded with aspirants or furniture. Robert Koch discovered the bacteria Vibrio cholerae as the cause of cholera by travelling in a ship nearly 10,000 miles in search of the land with cholera. He first went to Egypt, then came to India and completed his monumental discovery. He became the father of bacteriology.
Go where the problems are, and not where you are a problem.
After studying medicine in India and public health in the US, nearly a quarter century ago, my wife Rani and I came to Gadchiroli with a question: How to improve health of the people of India? Through some initial blunders we learned the second rule: The research should not be conducted merely because I find it intellectually interesting. It should address the needs of the community I work with, not the research community I report to.
Where are such topics? Rule Number 3: Very rich researchable topics are waiting all around us to be discovered. But we are looking at somewhere else for something dramatic. The ordinary, the common does not appeal to us as a research challenge. In reality, great discoveries are hidden in it. The falling of an apple was not an exciting or unusual event. But Newton saw the hidden meaning in it. Such apples are falling around us everyday.
Which health problems needed research? Whom should we ask? We invited the community leaders, men and women, from 40 villages, and asked them, “Which health problems trouble you the most ?” Over the years, such ‘people’s health assemblies’ have become an annual event in our area. They identify issues for research and action. I shall describe one of these.
People, especially women, said, “Our children are dying”. We established a system in which trained village men, our ‘bare-foot researchers’, recorded and investigated all child deaths in 86 villages. This gave us an important insight 20 years ago: Newborn period, the first 28 days after birth, was the riskiest period. Deaths during this period accounted for nearly 75 percent of the infant mortality rate. (Global experts estimated recently that 1.1 million newborns die every year in India, and 4 million the world over.) How to save them?