Automated robots transport wafers at an advanced production fab. Semiconductor technologies are so advanced that it's impossible to catch up without pumping in vast sums of money. Building a foundry business takes time—a single leading-edge fab can cost $10-15 billion and take more than four years to finish. Making chips is so complex and specialised that even diversifying the manufacturing location will make it more difficult to maintain quality. The transistor in a 3-nanometer (nm) node is just 1/20,000th the width of a human hair. The key component may only be silicon, but the magic happens in processing and altering it.